In 1692 the artist “A. Boogert” developed a book in Dutch about mixing watercolors. He explained that just by adding water, one could create different hues. 

There are nearly 800 color blocked pages that Boogert intended for educational purposes. The irony is that it is a one-of-a-kind book and probably did not reach the intended audience. 

For some perspective, Pantone did not come out with their color charts until the 60's which was 217 years later. 

The book is currently kept at the Bibliothèque Méjanes in Aix-en-Provence, France.

 source via Erik Kwakkel